Tag Archives: Personal Experience

Burning Man: A Reflective Culture

The post-Burning Man euphoria is slowly passing as the flood of photos, videos, and blog posts are hitting the Internet. The first wave has passed and the second wave will be coming soon. While most of the comments and thoughts are positive and joyful, there will be many that have had a hard time with the events of such a festival. This is no surprise from an event that is “whatever you want it to be” because time, study and history has shown the people will find joy in their internal joy and misery in their internal misery.

Burning Man has been referred to by many social scientists as a Sub-Culture or a Counter-Culture, though this is done with hesitation. Part of the reason for the hesitation is due to Burning Man not fitting the finer points of the definition of sub/counter culture. Using a wide brush definition, then any group that have more than a handful of people could be seen as a sub/counter culture and in many ways that worked with the Burning Man groups for a while. But the growth and diversity of the groups within the groups of the population of Burning Man has revived this discussion.

Burning is Not a Sub-Culture

The definition of a ‘sub-culture’ is: “a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture” (Google). And the definition of a ‘counter-culture’ is: “a way of life and set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm” (Google). As it can be see here, the definitions of each is the same as the other. So for ease of communication, from this point forward both with be referred to as ‘sub-culture’.

Sub-culture is about the opposed view or a variance (the fact or quality of being different, divergent, or inconsistent [Google]) from the larger culture and at first glance Burning Man and all of the smaller communities that have branched from it does fit the definition of a sub-culture because what is seen on the surface is a complete lack of control and what looks like a society built only on the use of drug and acquisition of as much sex as possible. While there are those parts it is on the surface, because it is what is or has been the most shocking parts; and Americans love the shocking. But these things does not make Burning Man a sub-culture, and in fact it helps to prove the opposite, the Burning Man is in line with the current culture.

One of the largest reasons that I have found outside of people referring to Burning Man as a sub-culture is the names. Because Burning Man has a name and the people that self-associate with the location, event, and activities call themselves “Burner”; is the reason that many will believe that there is a sub-culture there instead of referring to it as a very large crowd within the larger culture.

A Reflective Culture

As the title of this paper indicated, in order to explain what Burning Man is to the larger culture, a new idea had to be born and this idea is a Reflective Culture. A Reflective Culture is “culture within a larger culture that will reflect the views of the larger culture in either minimizing form or heightened exaggerated form.” While there are many people that might argue with this idea, spending a week or more at Burning Man might help to point out that this definition is a truer one than calling Burning Man a sub-culture.

In an effort to show that Burning Man is a reflective culture, here are five brief examples of things that are within the current scope of the American Culture and are being either exaggerated or reduced in the behaviors of the members of the crowd:

#1: Non-violence and Redirected Violence

The Death Guild and Thunder Dome has become one of the most well-known and popular attractions on the ground at Black Rock City. Partly because of the well-known dome and the association the Mad Max movies but more for the intense fighting that will be played out in the confines of the dome. Americans love to watch violence play out in many different forms and Thunder Dome is a form that has become a staple of the event. Outside of Burning Man, people will get their need for violence fixed through action movies and video game play; but at Burning Man, you not only have a chance to be part of the action but you can climb on to a large dome to watch it happen when others are fighting. In many ways, the presence of Thunder Dome helps to sub-due the need for violence that most people feel when frustrated.

Outside of the Thunder Dome there is very little violence, and as one person point out, there seems to be almost an excessive amount of love and happiness. In many ways, people seem to be compelled to be happy and excited all of the time. It could be argued that this is due to being on vacation but it is far more believable that the increased happiness comes from an environment that is encouraging of this behavior. This same sets of behavior is also found in American Culture in the form of the ‘be happy’ movements that started in the sixties and are still being forced on people to this day. In day to day life, most people are expected to be smiling and happy and if they are not, efforts are made to bring about this condition. One behavior that is often present is while people are walking down the streets, they will randomly yell “Woo Hoo” as if trying to encourage hyped up feeling and happy feelings.

Burning Man is an environment of emotional highs and lows. It is argued that the extreme highs and lows are because of the extremes of the environment, and while this might be true on the surface, the truth might fit more with the expectations of the environment. People are encourage to self-express their emotions with others, and recognize themselves; and this is exaggerated in the Burning Man environments.

#2: Community Involvement

America was built by smaller communities helping each other out and that is no different at Burning Man. The principle of “No Commerce” is in large part responsible for keeping the community support alive in a larger culture of purchase power. Interestingly enough, recent reports on the lower SES communities has shown that the power of the community is still very much alive in most of American culture and in many ways, Burning Man seeks to magnify these relationships. For many, survival in the harsh desert environment is about having a little help from friends and neighbors; and the community is heavily encourage to maintain these survival behaviors.

While there is increasing bemoaning of the loss of community, Burning Man actually shows that community does still exist and can thrive. The difference is where we are looking for people’s communities. Many people all over the country have communities, but they are not made up of their next door neighbors. Country clubs, churches, schools, local hang-outs and even online chat groups are the prime areas for finding communities. Burning Man is another place to develop communities and in many ways, is help to create national and international communities because the individual of a group are in fact scattered all over the world. For many Burners, it is the exaggerated community and sense of belonging that keeps them coming back year after year.

#3: Gender Roles

Gender roles and gender discrimination has been a hot topic on the news, in the government and in many areas of life for the better part of the last 40 years of American history. This issue has be focused on from many different angles including: sexual rights, reproductive rights, work place discrimination, affirmative actions, safety, violence, etc. Observations of interaction at Burning Man has shown that not only are gender role beliefs suppressed to a point of non-existence but there are environments in which people can work together and there is little to no bias based on their gender, sex or orientation. Burning Man is well known for being an environment that encourages people to look at skills, strength and weaknesses beyond the visual assessments. Unlike with the ‘be happy’ movement and community involvement, both magnified in the Burning Man culture, the gender roles is sub-consciously suppressed and has little influence, just as it is becoming in the larger American culture. It has been a slow process and there is more work to do, but Burning Man is leading the way into a less discriminating world.

#4: Drugs and Alcohol

One of the big concerns about Burning Man is the amount of drug and alcohol used there. While there are law enforcement officers at the event and they often ticket people for possession and use of illicit and illegal drugs, it does not change that there is a lot of it all out there. For some people, the start their drinking when they get there and might sober up enough to drive at the end of the week.

Many have complained that the excessive use is one of the variance items that makes Burning Man a sub-culture but that is also not true. Americans drink, and do drugs… a lot of them. In many ways, some of the foundations of American interactions are found in bars and parties, though not to the point of being drunk for a whole week. It is fairly common for a person to have a cocktail at the end of the day and for many, getting drunk on Saturday is the highlight of the week. For proof of how much Americans like their drugs and alcohol, watch television for a while or sit outside of a bar for a while.

Burning Man culture does not encourage people to drink too much, but it does nothing to stop them outside of asking people to be healthy and safe and when the person falls down, the community tries to get them to a safe place or a medical station. This is no different than would be found on the streets of any American city or town but at Burning Man it is magnified and larger.

#5: Sexuality

Much like with drugs and alcohol, Americans like sex and a lot of it. American culture has roots going back to the Age of Enlightenment, of which sex was believed to not only be something to embrace and enjoy, but also a fundamental right (the belief in the right has it’s own problems but that is for another paper). Evidence of the right to have sex is seen in the various different assaults and other sexual activities that have become increasingly public. Play parties, polygamous relationships, Viagra commercials and even sex therapy are points of evidence that Sex is seen as a right deserved by all willing and able people. In fact, sex is a very publicly private thing in American society, as could be seen in the ways in which American will show availability and public efforts to engage in sex.

And just like with drugs and alcohol, Burning Man culture does not stop people from seeking out what they think is their right to pursue, but instead asks people to be respectful of other’s rights and safety. The big difference between Burning Man and the rest of the America is that Burning Man takes the transparent world of sex and allows it to be see-through there. Many of the people in the culture treat sex as a fact of life and nature and so should be seen as an obvious fact of existence.


A first time attendant said to the author “Burning Man is not a vacation, but a survival experience.” This statement is very true and the culture of Burning Man has weathered it much in the same ways that the American culture has survive over time and through trials. Another person said that “Burning Man was a micro-cosmos of the development of America” and this is also a true statement. While Burning Man is reflecting the larger American culture it is also calling America what it is: an adapting, survivalist culture. Looking through the American history books and the media, one can see that Americans are invested in survival and when the world has gotten to easy to survive in, they will seek out another environment to survive in. Burning Man is surviving because of the facts of life (drugs and sex), shifting responsibility (gender roles or lack there-of), a little help from friends (community) and the ways of violence and happiness… and these are the same ways that America is adapting. The survival of America is not based in staying the same but instead adapting to the future and in many ways the magnifying glass and fun house mirror of Burning Man is showing the ways America is adapting, for good and for bad.

Authors Note: This document is wholly the opinions and thoughts of the author and has not sought or received approval from Burning Man LLC.

A Walk inside My Mind: Living with Asperger’s

A Walk inside My Mind: Living with Asperger’s

            I have thought of many ways to start this paper and I will more than likely think of many more before I am done with the writing, editing and reading of what I have written here. However, I guess the best way to start really is to say that which will be apparent to the reader soon enough. This is a personal piece and though I hope to write many more papers that have more serious and scientific emphasis, this is not a paper for that purpose.

I have spent many hours talking with people from many different lifestyles and during those many conversations, I have told many stories about my life. Some of the people that I have spoken with have indicated in words and facial responses that they would read a memoir that I have written about my life… and I respond much the same: The only reason a memoir would be interesting is if you know me, otherwise there are people far more interesting than myself in the world that have better stories to tell. I have no wish to clog the already full bookcases with a simple story that only a handful would like to read. In addition, I have no wish to relive my life in the ways that a writer would need to. I have lived it, verbally told the story, and I move on.

Nevertheless, it seems that there is a story in my life that I feel is worth telling in the written word, and not because it is an emotional tale, but rather a rational and simple one that I hope, many others would be able to gain insight on. My goal is to provide a point of view that will help others understand the points of view of loved ones around them. I am writing about the interaction of a personality and a ‘gift’ inside of my head, and I only hope that it will help more people than I will receive criticism for it.

What is Asperger’s Disorder?

            Asperger’s Disorder has been a victim of stereotypes and misperceptions over the years and part of this is due to the relationship that Asperger’s has with Autism.  Asperger’s is a form of high functioning Autism and part of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (Sicile-Kira, 2004). Autism, in its lowest functioning forms, is a disorder much like Mental Retardation, so many individuals that hear the term “Asperger’s” assume a person is mentally retarded. There are many believed cases; including believing much like it was in the time of Jesus Christ, that the parents did something terrible to cause the child to be disabled. I am often amazed by how many people pity me or feel sorry for me or treatment me as if I am deaf and dumb when they hear that I am confirmed with Asperger’s. And then there are many that believe that I am a genius when they here Autism in reference to me… though my last online IQ quiz put me at about 140, but I think that happened because I was having a good day. I would ask the reader to please set aside the stereotypes now even if they are partly correct, and those with experience will probably agree with me.

While Asperger’s is part of the spectrum of Autism, I like to think of Asperger’s as the cousin of Autism: different but from the same family. When I discuss the relations of these two disorders to others in conversation, I will often draw out the image below on a sheet of paper or a napkin:

High Functioning ——- Asperger’s ——- [] ———Autism—————–Low Functioning

Asperger’s patients are not always aware that they have the disorder or that there is even a problem. In a lot of cases of Asperger’s, the individual will find ways to adapt to the environments they are in with either a focus on logic or a selection of friends that are willing to spend time with an eccentric person. Asperger’s individuals tend to have high intelligence but not always are they geniuses (as has been portrayed on television) (Sicile-Kira, 2004). Many experts in the study and management of Asperger’s argue that though it is part of the spectrum of Autism, it is also a different expression of the disorder. As a result, a person that has experience with an Autistic person might be able to understand shared traits of an Asperger’s person but not in reverse.

We obtain a diagnosis of Asperger’s and Autism by looking at three important areas of how the person interacts with others in the world around them: Social, Communicative and Organizational (though some people will call it ‘restrictive patterns of behavior’) (Mesibov, Shea & Adams, 2001). I am not going to spend time on the process of diagnosing or the criterion, but I will spend a paragraph discussing each of the areas affected.

Social is often the area that comes to the attention of care-takers and others first. Autistics like to be alone a great deal or they with use barriers between themselves and others like computers, screens or other devices. Many autistics will also have a difficult time with social rules and norms, in some cases refusing to follow them unless there is a reasonable and logical explanation for the rules. In many ways an Autistic child is asking why to every social rule that is put in front of them and if there is no reason for the rule, they will dismiss it.

Communicative is the next area, and this does not refer only to verbal communication but also nonverbal. Many people with Asperger’s remain undiagnosed because there is still a stereotype that only people with low or no ability to speak are Autistic. Robison (2011) does a good job of discussing many different social behaviors that can communicate the wrong information, but do not make any sense in a real communication. Most Asperger’s patients like their communication to be simple, straightforward and direct, and finished definitively. In the books I have read by Asperger’s and the conversations I have had, most of them like the communication to get to the point, complete and move on. Moreover, at times this can seem very rude to other people, thus communicating the wrong information in the interaction.

The final area is with organization of objects, life activities, and thoughts. If you spend a long time with a person of Autism Spectrum Disorders, you will notice that many of them ‘have a method to their madness’. The organization is multifold because it assists the person with many areas of their life. The first is in keeping track of information, because the Asperger’s brain will process through thousands of bits of information while trying to figure life, other people and the world they live in. The other reason for the organization is a need to feel in control of their environment. People of Autistic Spectrum Disorders are often easily stressed and as a result, many will develop tools and routines to help cope with stress (Dubin, 2009). The last reason for the routines is so that nothing is forgotten or neglected, because while living in one’s one little world, sometimes you will forget to feed the cat or take out the trash. The routine helps to keep the little things in life taken care of.

I have had many people ask me about the causes of Autism/Asperger’s and there are many different theories and ideas. One idea that I thought was the most logical was found in Mirroring People by Iacboni (2008) in which he say that Asperger’s and Autism, are at least partially caused by a low population of Mirror Neurons in the brain. Mirror Neurons are the parts of the brain that help children to learn social behaviors and emotional cues and how to empathize with others that are around them (Iacoboni, 2008). In addition, Iacoboni (2008) points out that the dysfunction or low population of these Mirror neurons could be connected to many of the social difficulties that people with Asperger’s suffer from. Many of the social difficulties include: not understanding a joke if the punch line is implied, not understanding others’ emotional response to an event that they are unrelated to, and not being aware of social cues such as a person attempting to engage attention or attraction.  I have been referred to as socially dense because of traits like these, and Robison (2011) points out many different rational skills that are used wisely in order to not socially alienate from the desirable group. The cause of the low population of mirror neurons is unknown but there are a few theories that are genetic, environment, or even evolution.

There a hundreds of books and articles on Asperger’s, Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders and at the end of the writing of this article I have included the books to which I referred. I believe that they are all good sources of information.

Who I am now and in the past

            Before I start, I should explain a little of whom I am. I am a 31-year-old woman and a budding academic in the field of psychology. I am currently teaching psychology and working to put my pen to paper or type my thoughts and ideas with the goals of improving the theories of psychology. Many consider me an individual of high intelligence and a rational observer of the human situation and its relation to the world. I spend time with friends and family and in all considerations thought to be a rather ‘normal’ person. The one way that I do not seem normal deals directly with my means of expressing emotion, as in there is not an intense and at times notable expression of emotion. For this reason, I have been accused of having no emotion, and there has been a couple of times that I have been asked if I am a sociopath. As I have been teaching for the last year, it is interesting to see many of my students responding to me as if I were cold as ice and I even had one call me egotistical, which I have never been called that by anyone before.

My life up until I turned 20 was not easy, and some of that could be due to a difficulty in my expressions of stress while growing up in a world that went from using answering machines to cell phones in a handful of years. Couple this with the many other difficulties of adolescence in the 1990s and turbulent world of my family, which I will not get into. What I will say that the trials I lived through not only helped me to develop a strong constitution as well as an interest and a heart-felt attachment to the subject I have made my occupation. I had someone ask me if I went in to psychology to figure out what was wrong with myself or someone else and I stared at them feeling confused (they thought I was angry at the question). After a moment I responded that I did not think there was anything wrong… instead I was trying to figure out people, I felt like I did not understand other people.

While reading this monologue, please keep in mind that I am an intellect, teacher and psychologist first before all other things and second to that, I am a human being. It is important to the writer that these concepts and ideas are first in my identity before everything else that this paper explains. I write this with the idea of being helpful to the larger psychological community and to help other humans because that is the most important part of whom I am.

My point of view on having Asperger’s Disorder

            I have talked to many different people about my having Asperger’s Disorder and I have gotten many different reactions. One reaction was to ask me if I thought of the prevalence of my having this disorder as a disability and my response was “No, I see it as an explanation”.  The reason I choose the word explanation is that I could see that I did not think about information in a ‘normal’ way. From the first psychology class I took in high school of the final paper of my master’s degree in psychology, I could plainly see that I did not think through information in a ‘typical’ way. I even went so far as to try to map out my thinking on a sheet of paper as a surveyor would with city streets. Even this simple act seemed weird to many that I showed it to… though they also said, ‘that is who you are and what you do.’

One concern that was brought up about acknowledging this explanation is that it gives me an excuse for anti-social or asocial behavior. I said in response that I do not see the excuse, but instead the way to develop tools to not behave in anti and asocial behavior. Tools that I might need would be doing some of the writing I am doing now, knowing that I need to spend time alone and understanding the ways in which I can better manage my resources and goals. As well as seeing the traits that I need to improve on that are typical of having Asperger’s. I passionately stand by the belief that a psychological disorder is no different from a medical disorder in the ways that people deal with it. Some people will use medical disorders as an excuse for avoidant and maladaptive behavior, while others will see it as a means to develop fulfilling relationships and benefiting goals. A disorder is only a disorder if the individual allows it to be a dictate on life and choices. I believe that both fate and free will work hand in hand, the determining result is the agreement an individual makes with himself or herself and the god (or lack thereof) that they believe in.

My family expressed concern about allowing the disorder to label me; however, I do not believe that I this disorder label me. Instead I view having Asperger’s as a pleasure and a gift. I think of my mind as a cave of wonders that I now have a map to and I am ready to explore. My explanation is also my joy, my gift, and my ability to provide the world with the ambitions of my goals for my career in psychology.  I hope to use my mind to help the world understand more of the functions of the mind and help a few great minds to find their own way to improve the world we live in. People with cognitive disorders like Asperger’s see the world differently… much like standing in different locations in a room will help you see the room differently. Some people stand in the center and other stand in corners, when you combine the points together you get a better map of the whole.

Asperger’s affects what I believe

            When I started to read and learn more about Autism Spectrum Disorders, my goal was to be able to provide accurate information to my students about a disorder that is growing in diagnosis and public awareness. There is a lot of misinformation and criticism with regards to this disorder and as a teacher it is important to provide correct information. I did not expect to find myself in the pages I was reading. I knew that I was a bit ‘weird’ and I have always made an effort to understand each of the traits. After I became more aware of the collection of traits that comes with the Asperger’s ‘package’, I felt that I found a mirror reflecting what I did not know. I later found out that I was diagnosed with Asperger’s as a child but never told of it because of other concerns and difficulties in my life at the time. Also there was very little information about the topic and that was a tentative diagnosis.

One of the traits that struck me first was the need for alone time. However I choose to spend that time, I still need it. I have tried to force myself to be a highly social person in the past and the result of a forced period is the same: me being angry with other people and confused. As a result, I have learned that it is okay to take a break and stay home for a while, or be introverted from time to time and even restrict social interaction to one or two people at that moment. Many of my close friends and family have become use to me sitting in silence during group conversation and this is because the many conversations going on around me can be over-whelming. I have also learned that when it is time to go home, it is okay to go home, and most people have learned to not stop me from leaving.

Another trait that struck me was the routines and organization behaviors, of which I do a great deal. I have my bedtime routine, my dinner and dishes routine, and I even have weekly routines for chores and other tasks. I spent a lot of time thinking about the routines and I realized that the need for the patterns partially needed for stress control. I have experience with non-verbal autistics in the past and was trained and warned about never changing their routines, which of course, suited me just fine. Though I have learned to appreciate and in some cases, enjoy change, I have a difficult time with permanent changes and large changes (such as moving to a new city or changing jobs). The number one thing I have learned to help me cope with this is to tell others that I am upset, what I need, and telling myself that it is okay to be frustrated.

Telling people the truth about my reactions and me has been my greatest tool in help me to maintain friendships and relationships. Because I have a difficult time with display of emotions (one person pointed out that if I did not say that I was falling asleep on my feet, they would not be able to tell looking at me), I have learned to speak my emotions and take actions (such as giving people hugs) to indicate how I am feeling. I have also learned to tell myself that it is okay not to express my emotions all the time, and that I am perfectly welcome to be stoic when I need to be. Most Asperger’s have a difficulties with be touched and it has taken a great deal of work and talk to express to people when it is okay to hug me and when I need my space.     The lack of emotional affect has been my greatest challenge and has got me in difficult situation more time than I can account for. Emotional expressing is one of the most important ways for humans to communicate with each other and having a hard time expressing emotion leads to a large amount of misperceptions of how I am feeling.

There are number of frustrating things about not expressing my emotions to the same dramatic details of others around me. One is that if I do not seem to be feeling anything (displaying apathy) I have been ‘given’ emotions or told how I am feeling. Often the given emotion is no where near what I am actually feeling and it is frustrating to anyone to be told how you are feeling. The second is having other people deflect their emotional state on to you or having other react to you as if you are a mirror that they are watching themselves in and they do not like what they see. This behavior often is followed by the first frustration of having others tell you how you are feeling. The third frustration is in misinterpretation which happens often. Many misinterpret my tone or statement for a more dramatic emotion than is being conveyed. I have simple logical statement understood as being angry or rude, even through email and text message. The last frustration is being ignored because there is no dramatic show of emotion and as a result other assume that you are fine when you are not and need some one to ask “are you okay?”

My favorite trait of Asperger’s/ Autism is the ability to solve puzzles. Though many people enjoy puzzles and like to disassemble and reassemble puzzles, the Autistic brain will apply this to life and other events. Most Autistics are highly rational people in the way that they think and as a result, they will spend a great deal of time piecing information together as if it were a puzzle. As a result, many of them will develop the skills to form puzzled pictures and ideas together, drawing together lines of association. There are a handful that have used these ingrained and learned thought skills to organize their lives, cope with stress and become great scientists, inventors, and thinkers.


            Autism Spectrum Disorders have a long way to go before it’s completely understood by most people in the world, but for the time being there is more interest and as a result, there is more research performed. I discovered that I am a high functioning Asperger’s a little over year ago and have found myself become a home-grown expect on the topic. However, the point of this paper was a means of expression from a person proud to be on the Spectrum of Autism. I was able to see that my brain is in fact different from others and from that I draw my strength, understanding and hone my talents. Though I am looking for ways to help deal with some of the unpleasant traits of Asperger’s such as high stress, social anxiety, and tunnel vision (literally), I feel confident that there are ways to do it without taking synthetic medications. At the moment there are connections being drawn from the supplement “choline” and coping with Autism. There is a brief article on ‘livestrong.com’ that is a good start to hopefully a growing body of information on the use of this supplement.

Learning to live with your self is a life long task and having an explanation as to why to stand out a little more than other people is a way to help. The final thought on this topic is a few words of advice. First, autistics need time, whether it is brushing teeth or thinking, they need to go at their own pace. Second, autistics do feel and deeply even if they are not always able to express those feelings in words or actions. And last, rational thinking is not a why of insulting you or not getting jokes. Most autistics are highly visual (see pictures more than words in their minds) and as a result the information does not come across as words or sounds would, result is a rational processing of information.

I read in one book that the numbers of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders is increasing to almost one in 100 people. Why the numbers have gone up is any one guess but it would be a help to see a study of the populations of world to see how many people have Autism on some level or another. With more information of the true numbers there might be better theories about the causes of autism as well as how to help people better cope with the frustrations in the future.


Dubin, N. (2009). Asperger Syndrome and Anxiety: A Guide to Stress Management. Dexter, MI: Thomson- Shore.

Iacoboni, M. (2009). Mirroring People: The Science of Empathy and How We Connect with Others. New York, N.Y: Picador.

Mesibov, G. B., Shea, V. & Adams, L. W. (2001). Understanding Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Robison, J. E. (2011). Be Different: Adventures of a Free-Range Aspergian with Practical Advice for Aspergians, Misfits, Families & Teachers. New York: Crown Archetype.

Sicile-Kira, C. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Complete Guide to Understanding Autism, Asperger\’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Other Asds. New York: Berkeley Pub. Group.